Disability inclusive education in Indonesian Islamic education institutions
Contrary to popular Western belief, the Indonesia Islamic education system and its schooling institutions have remained an important counter institution to processes of colonisation, while adopting elements of western education system. Emerging in the late nineteenth century in a form of traditional institution known as Pesantren in Java and Kalimantan, Dayah in Aceh and Surau in West Sumatra, they provided a point of resistance first to local emperors, and then to the colonial Dutch educational system .
Beginning in the 1920s, some of these institutions reformed but also adopted certain western education practices such as the introduction of a grading system and a classroom. Now, the Islamic Educational System is a core stream within Indonesia’s modern state funded education system, offering schooling from Kindergarten through to Higher Education. Unlike the general education system previously funded by the Ministry of National Education, Islamic education institutions have been funded by the Ministry of Religion since the late 1960s. Over time, as part of the national education project, the Islamic Education System started to demand the combination of a secular national curriculum alongside religious education .